The Board of Education, District Superintendent, Superintendent of Schools, a Building Principal or in his/her absence, an acting Building Principal, may suspend a student from school where it is determined that the student:
- is insubordinate or disorderly, or exhibits conduct which endangers the safety, morals, health or welfare of others; or
- exhibits a physical or mental condition(s) which endangers the health, safety or morals of himself/herself or of other students; or
- is removed from a classroom for substantially disrupting the educational process or substantially interfering with the teacher’s authority in the classroom four or more times in one semester.
In addition to the statutory grounds for suspension from school for conduct or health condition, students shall also be subject to suspension based upon a violation of the specific disciplinary infractions listed below.
A. Pre-suspension Process
Prior to being suspended from school, the student shall be confronted by a school official empowered to suspend, as referenced above, at which time the evidence upon which the decision to suspend is based shall be stated to the student and the student shall be given the opportunity to explain his/her version of the facts. The student shall also be afforded the right to present other persons to the suspending authority in support of his/her version of the facts. If the student’s presence in the school poses a continuing danger to persons or property or an ongoing threat of disruption to the academic process, such confrontation shall occur following suspension, as soon thereafter as is reasonably practicable. In all cases, there shall be no suspension until after the informal Principal’s conference, unless waived, as described in paragraph B, below.
B. Short-term Suspension Process
Prior to a proposed suspension from school for between one and five days by a Building Principal or an acting Principal in the absence of the Building Principal, the student and his/her parent shall be notified, in writing, by personal delivery, express mail or overnight service, and by telephone, if possible, within 24 hours of the decision to propose suspension. Such written notice shall include a description of the incident(s) resulting in the suspension and shall inform the parent of their right to request an immediate informal conference with the Principal at which the student and/or his/her parent may present the student’s version of the event and ask questions of complaining witnesses. Upon such request, an informal conference with the Principal and other parties involved shall be convened as soon as possible, [at which time the evidence, including the witness(es) relied upon by the Principal in making the suspension determination, may be questioned by the parent or guardian.] The right to an informal conference with the Principal shall also extend to a student if 18 years of age or older. The notice and informal conference shall be in the dominant language or mode of communication used by the parent. If the student’s presence in the school poses a continuing danger to persons or property or an ongoing threat of disruption to the academic process, the notice and opportunity for an informal conference shall take place as soon after the suspension as is reasonably practicable.
Any appeal brought by the parent or student over the age of 18 of a Principal’s suspension must be presented to the Superintendent of Schools and then to the Board of Education within 30 days of the implementation of the discipline prior to filing any further appeal.
C. The Long-term Suspension Process: Suspension for More than Five Days
Any suspension from school in excess of five school days shall be considered a long-term suspension. Unless there is an agreement between the person requesting the suspension and the parent, a long-term suspension may be done only after the Superintendent of Schools or the Board of Education has conducted a hearing.
When a student is subject to a long-term suspension, a hearing shall be conducted by the Superintendent if the Building Principal, acting Building Principal or the Superintendent has made the original suspension, or before the Board where that body has made the original suspension. The Superintendent of Schools or Board of Education may designate a Hearing Officer to make findings of fact with respect to the charges of infractions under this code of conduct, as well as penalty recommendation pursuant to the penalty parameters described herein.
D. Hearing Procedures
Notice of Hearing
In the event of the suspension of a student under the age of 18 years, the notice of suspension will be mailed or delivered to the parent, who shall have a minimum of 72 hours notice of the time and place of the hearing, as well as the nature of the charge(s) and the facts, sufficiently stated so that a proper defense may be placed upon the record on behalf of the student.
In the event of the suspension of a student over the age of 18, the notice, as described above, shall be delivered or mailed to the student, as well as to the student’s parent(s), if any. Emancipated minors shall be entitled to the same notice rights as a student beyond the age of 18 years.
All notices of long-term suspension hearings shall contain provisions indicating that the student has the right to be represented by an attorney or lay counsel, that a transcript of the hearing will be prepared (tape recording or stenographic record) and that the student has the right to subpoena witnesses or otherwise present witnesses in his/her defense. The time, date and location of the hearing shall also be prominently set forth in the notice.
If the student is 18 years of age or older, the letter described above will be mailed to the student as well as his/her parent.
The Long-Term Suspension Hearing
The hearing shall be conducted by the Superintendent or a designated Hearing Officer in the event of a suspension by a Building Principal, acting Building Principal; or the Superintendent. The hearing shall be conducted by the Board or its designated Hearing Officer in the event that the suspension originated by Board action.
At the beginning of the hearing, the Hearing Officer shall inform the student and the student’s representative(s):
- that the District’s and the student’s representatives shall have the right to examine and cross-examine witnesses;
- that the student has the privilege against self-incrimination, but that if the student does testify, s/he shall be subject to cross-examination;
- that the District has the burden of proving the charges by a preponderance of the credible evidence;
- that a transcript of the proceedings shall be maintained and made available to the student’s representative upon request; and
- that the hearing shall be private or open to the public, as determined by the student’s representative.
The person conducting the hearing shall not have intimate knowledge of the details of the charges to assure an impartial, unbiased hearing of the case.
The Hearing Officer shall inform the parties:
- that the case will proceed by having the District present its evidence through witnesses and other evidence first;
- that the District’s witnesses shall be subject to cross-examination by the student’s representative; and
- that the student will then have the opportunity to present witnesses on his/her behalf, subject to cross-examination by the District’s representative.
Following the conclusion of the testimony and the introduction of other evidence matters, the parties shall be afforded the opportunity to present oral arguments to the Hearing Officer indicating the reasons why the charges should be sustained or dismissed. The Hearing Officer shall then reach findings of fact upon the charges.
In the event that one or more of the charges is sustained, the Hearing Officer shall then entertain statements from the parties regarding the appropriate penalty outcome. In the event that the parent and/or the student, in an appropriate case, have been served with a copy of the student’s past disciplinary anecdotal record in a timely fashion (at least 48 hours before the hearing), for consideration at the hearing, such record may be considered by the Hearing Officer in determining an appropriate penalty. The incidents contained within the past anecdotal record shall be subject to proof to the extent that they are denied by the student, as expressed by the student’s representative.
The Hearing Officer, upon the conclusion of the portion of the proceedings dealing With penalty determinations, shall make findings of fact and penalty recommendations, if any, to the person or body which designated him/her immediately upon the conclusion of the long-term suspension hearing.
The Superintendent or Board, whichever designated the Hearing Officer, shall make its own findings of fact and penalty decision, by adopting those of the designated Hearing Officer, where applicable, in whole or in part, or by reaching independent findings of fact and penalty determinations. This process shall be concluded within the five school day period from the time of the initial suspension if the student is to be continuously suspended. The decision may be communicated to the student’s representative and/or student (where over the age of 18) beyond the five school day period in cases where the student has been reinstated to attendance in school pending the final determination on the charges and penalty by the Superintendent or the Board, in cases to be decided by them, respectively.
Procedure After Suspension
The Board may condition a student’s early return from a suspension on the student’s voluntary participation in counseling or specialized classes, such as anger management or dispute resolution. The Board retains discretion in offering this opportunity. If and when the student and/or parent/guardian agrees to this option, the terms and conditions shall be specified in writing.
Pursuant to the Education Law, no student shall be suspended from school in his/her regularly scheduled classes without being provided alternative equivalent instruction, either in the form of home instruction or instruction in an alternative setting. Such instruction shall be of an equivalent nature to that provided in the student’s regularly scheduled classes. A good faith effort shall be made to provide such alternative instruction immediately.
In the event that a student within the compulsory education ages of six and the school year in which s/he becomes 16 is suspended from school in excess of five school days, alternative equivalent instruction shall be provided for the duration of the period of suspension.
The decision of the Superintendent with respect to the findings of fact sustaining charges in a long-term suspension hearing and/or penalty determination shall be subject to appeal to the Board of Education. The Board shall review the record of the proceedings before the Superintendent or his/her designated Hearing Officer, including a review of the transcript of the proceedings, documentary evidence and written arguments of the representatives of the respective parties, if any. The Board does not provide the representatives of the respective parties with the opportunity either to present evidence not previously in the record or to make arguments in person before the Board.
In the event that the initial long-term suspension hearing was conducted by the Board or its designated Hearing Officer, or where the Board has ruled on an appeal from a Superintendent’s long-term suspension hearing, the matter may be further appealed.
E. Off-Campus Misconduct
A student may be subject to discipline for conduct constituting a crime, or making a threat directed at another student or a school employee or cyberbullying that would constitute a violation of the Code of Conduct which is committed off of school premises or at non-school sponsored activities to the extent that the Superintendent of Schools and/or Board of Education believes that the continued attendance in school of the student would constitute an endangerment to the health, safety, welfare or morals of the student and/or others in our schools.
F. Suspension from Transportation Service
Students may be suspended from transportation services for an infraction or infractions listed herein upon the conducting of an informal hearing by the Superintendent of Schools or his/her designee, at which time the student’s parent/guardian or other representative shall be allowed to confront the witnesses relied upon by the District in determining the appropriateness of such suspension of service. If such informal hearing is conducted before the Superintendent’s designee, the designee shall make a recommendation to the Superintendent as to the action to be taken.
G. Extra-Curricular and Co-Curricular Activities and School Functions
To participate in all extracurricular activities, a student cannot be failing two or more subjects weekly, including Physical Education.
Major subjects count as one and minor subjects count as one-half. Below is a list of major and minor subjects:
- Major Subjects
- Foreign language
- Social Studies
- Minor Subjects
- Physical Education
- Home Economics
To check eligibility each coach and/or advisor is to submit a list of participants to the Athletic Director and/or main office at the start of practice or activity. The Athletic Director and/or Principal will notify each coach and/or advisor of a student’s eligibility.
If it is suspected that a classified student’s failure is related to his or her disability, an immediate referral should be made to the CSE for review and modifications to the IEP if appropriate.
The policy will be effective the fifth week of each school year.
A student may be suspended from participating in extra-curricular or co-curricular activities (including a sports team) for an infraction of any of the provisions herein, for violating a code of conduct issued to participants in the activity by the activity supervisor or for fighting at games. Upon the request of the student’s parent/guardian, the Building Principal shall allow the parent/ guardian or other representative of the student the right to appear before him/her informally, to discuss the conduct which led to suspension from the activity.
If a student is suspended from school pursuant to §3214 of the Education Law, she/he shall not be permitted to participate in any extra-curricular or co-curricular activities, as well as any other school events or activities which take place on the days of suspension (including intervening weekends).
H. Discipline of Students with Disabilities
The Board of Education recognizes that it may be necessary to suspend, remove or otherwise discipline students with disabilities who violate the district’s student code of conduct, and/or to temporarily remove a student with disabilities from his or her current placement because maintaining the student in that placement is substantially likely to result in injury to the student or to others. The Board also recognizes that students with disabilities deemed eligible for special education services under the IDEA and Article 89 of New York’s Education Law enjoy certain procedural protections that school authorities must observe when they decide to suspend or remove them. Under certain conditions those protections extend, as well, to students not currently deemed to be a student with a disability but determined to be a student presumed to have a disability for discipline purposes.
Therefore, the Board is committed to ensuring that the district follows suspension and removal procedures that are consistent with those protections. The code of conduct for students is intended to afford students with disabilities and students presumed to have a disability for discipline purposes the express rights they enjoy under applicable law and regulations.
For purposes of this portion of the code of conduct, and consistent with applicable law and regulations, the following definitions will apply:
- Behavioral intervention plan (BIP) means a plan that is based on the results of a functional behavioral assessment and that, at a minimum, includes a description of the problem behavior, global and specific hypotheses as to why the problem behavior occurs, and intervention strategies that include positive behavioral supports and services to address the behavior.
- Controlled substance means a drug or other substance abuse identified under schedule I, II, III, IV, or V in section 202(c) of the Controlled Substances Act (21 USC § 812(c)).
- Disciplinary change in placement means a suspension or removal from a student’s current educational placement that is either:
a. For more than 10 consecutive school days; or
b. For a period of 10 consecutive school days or less if the student is subjected to a series of suspensions or removals that constitute a pattern because they cumulate to more than 10 school days in a school year, because the student’s behavior is substantially similar to the student’s behavior in previous incidents that resulted in the series of removals, and because of such additional factors as the length of each suspension or removal, the total amount of time the student has been removed and the proximity of the suspensions or removals to one another.
- Illegal drug means a controlled substance, but does not include a controlled substance legally possessed or used under the supervision of a licensed health-care professional, or a substance that is otherwise legally possessed or used under the authority of the Controlled Substances Act or under any other provision of federal law.
- Interim alternative educational setting (IAES) means a temporary educational placement, other than the student’s current placement at the time the behavior precipitating the IAES placement occurred. An IAES must allow a student to continue to receive educational services that enable him or her to continue to participate in the general curriculum and progress toward meeting the goals set out in the student’s individualized education program; as well as to receive, as appropriate, a functional behavioral assessment and behavioral intervention services and modifications designed to address the behavior violation so that it does not recur.
- Manifestation review means a review of the relationship between the student’s disability and the behavior subject to disciplinary action required when the disciplinary action results in a disciplinary change of placement, and conducted in accordance with requirements set forth later in this policy.
- Manifestation team means a district representative knowledgeable about the student and the interpretation of information about child behavior, the parent, and relevant members of the committee on special education as determined by the parent and the district.
- Removal means a removal of a student with a disability for disciplinary reasons from his or her current educational placement, other than a suspension; and a change in the placement of a student with a disability to an IAES.
- School day means any day, including a partial day, that students are in attendance at school for instructional purposes.
- Serious bodily injury means bodily injury which involves a substantial risk of death, extreme physical pain, protracted obvious disfigurement or protracted loss or impairment of the function of a bodily member, organ or mental faculty.
- Student presumed to have a disability for discipline purposes means a student who, under the conditions set forth later in this policy, the district is deemed to have had knowledge was a student with a disability before the behavior that precipitated the disciplinary action.
- Suspension means a suspension pursuant to §3214 of New York’s Education Law.
- Weapon means the same as the term “dangerous weapon” under 18 USC §930(g)(2) which includes a weapon, device, instrument, material or substance, animate or inanimate, that is used for, or is readily capable of causing death or serious bodily injury.
Authority of School Personnel to Suspend or Remove Students with Disabilities
The Board, District Superintendent, Superintendent of Schools or a Building Principal with authority to suspend students under the Education Law may order the placement of a student with a disability into an IAES following consultant with the student’s special education teacher or service provider, where applicable, another setting or suspension for a period not to exceed five consecutive school days.
The Superintendent may, directly or upon the recommendation of a designated hearing officer, order the placement of a student with a disability into an IAES, another setting or suspension for a period not to exceed ten consecutive school days inclusive of any period in which the student has been suspended or removed for the same behavior pursuant to the above paragraph, if the Superintendent determines that the student’s behavior warrants the suspension. The Superintendent also may order additional suspensions of not more than ten consecutive school days in the same school year for separate incidents of misconduct, as long as the suspensions do not constitute a disciplinary change of placement.
In addition, the Superintendent may order the placement of a student with a disability into an IAES, another setting or suspension for a period in excess of ten consecutive school days if the manifestation team determines that the student’s behavior was not a manifestation of the student’s disability. In such an instance, the Superintendent may discipline the student in the same manner and for the same duration as a non-disabled student.
Furthermore, the Superintendent may, directly or upon the recommendation of a designated hearing officer, order the placement of a student with a disability to an IAES to be determined by the committee on special education for a period of up to 45 school days if the student either:
- Carries or possesses a weapon to or at school, on school premises or to a school function, or
- Knowingly possesses or uses illegal drugs or sells or solicits the sale of a controlled substance while at school, on school premises or at a school function under the district’s jurisdiction, or
- Has inflicted serious bodily injury upon another person while at school, on school premises or at a school function under the district’s jurisdiction.
The Superintendent may order the placement of a student with a disability to an IAES under such circumstances, whether or not the student’s behavior is a manifestation of the student’s disability. However, the committee on special education will determine the IAES.
Procedures for the Suspension or Removal of Students with Disabilities by School Personnel
- In cases involving the suspension or removal of a student with a disability for a period of five consecutive school days or less, the student’s parents or persons in parental relation to the student will be notified of the suspension and given an opportunity for an informal conference in accordance with the same procedures that apply to such short term suspensions of non-disabled students.
- The suspension of students with disabilities for a period in excess of five school days will be subject to the same due process procedures applicable to non-disabled students, except that the student disciplinary hearing conducted by the Superintendent or a designated hearing officer shall be bifurcated into a guilt phase and a penalty phase. Upon a finding of guilt, the Superintendent or the designated hearing officer will await notification of the determination by the manifestation team as to whether the student’s behavior was a manifestation of his or her disability. The penalty phase of the hearing may proceed after receipt of that notification. If the manifestation team determined that the behavior was not a manifestation of the student’s disability, the student may be disciplined in the same manner as a non-disabled student, except that he or she will continue to receive services as set forth below. However, if the behavior was deemed a manifestation of the student’s disability, the hearing will be dismissed, unless the behavior involved concerned weapons, illegal drugs or controlled substances, or the infliction of serious bodily injury, in which case the student may still be placed in an IAES.
Limitation on Authority of School Personnel to Suspend or Remove Students with Disabilities
The imposition of a suspension or removal by authorized school personnel may not result in a disciplinary change of placement of a student with a disability that is based on a pattern of suspensions or removals as set forth above in the Definitions section of this policy, unless:
- The manifestation team determines that the student’s behavior was not a manifestation of the student’s disability, or
- The student is removed to an IAES for behavior involving weapons, illegal drugs or controlled substances, or the infliction of serious bodily injury as set forth above.
School personnel will consider any unique circumstances on a case-by-case basis when determining whether a disciplinary change in placement is appropriate for a student with a disability who violates the district’s code of conduct.
In addition, school personnel may not suspend or remove a disabled student in excess of the amount of time that a non-disabled student would be suspended for the same behavior.
Parental Notification of a Disciplinary Change of Placement
The district will provide the parents of a student with a disability notice of any decision to make a removal that constitutes a disciplinary change of placement because of a violation of the student code of conduct. Such notice will be accompanied by a copy of the procedural safeguards notice.
Authority of an Impartial Hearing Officer to Remove a Student with a Disability
An impartial hearing officer may order the placement of a student with a disability to an IAES for up to 45 school days at a time if he or she determines that maintaining the current placement of the student is substantially likely to result in injury to the student or to others. This authority applies whether or not the student’s behavior is a manifestation of the student’s disability.
A review of the relationship between a student’s disability and the behavior subject to disciplinary action to determine if the conduct is a manifestation of the student’s disability will be made by the manifestation team immediately, if possible, but in no case later than 10 school days after a decision is made by:
- The Superintendent to change the placement of a student to an IAES;
- An impartial hearing officer to place a student in an IAES; or
- The Board, the Superintendent, or Building Principal to impose a suspension that constitutes a disciplinary change in placement.
The manifestation team must determine that the student’s conduct was a manifestation of the student’s disability if it concludes that the conduct in question was either:
- Caused by or had a direct or substantial relationship to the student’s disability, or
- The direct result of the district’s failure to implement the student’s individualized education program.
The manifestation team must base its determination on a review all relevant information in the student’s file including the student’s individualized education program, any teacher observations, and any relevant information provided by the parents.
If the manifestation team determines that the student’s conduct is a manifestation of the student’s disability, the district will:
- Have the committee on special education conduct a functional behavioral assessment of the student and implement a behavioral intervention plan, unless the district had already done so prior to the behavior that resulted in the disciplinary change of placement occurred. However, if the student already has a behavioral intervention plan, the CSE will review the plan and its implementation, and modify it as necessary to address the behavior.
- Return the student to the placement from which he or she was removed, unless the change in placement was to an IAES for conduct involving weapons, illegal drugs or controlled substances or the infliction of serious bodily injury, or the parents and the district agree to a change in placement as part of the modification of the behavioral intervention plan.
If the manifestation team determines that the conduct in question was the direct result of the district’s failure to implement the student’s individualized education program, the district will take immediate steps to remedy those deficiencies.
Services for Students with Disabilities during Periods of Suspension or Removal
Students with disabilities who are suspended or removed from their current educational setting in accordance with the provisions of this policy and applicable law and regulation will continue to receive services as follows:
- During suspensions or removals of up to 10 school days in a school year that do not constitute a disciplinary change in placement, the district will provide alternative instruction to students with disabilities of compulsory attendance age on the same basis as non-disabled students. Students with disabilities who are not of compulsory attendance age will receive services during such periods of suspension or removal only to the same extent as non-disabled students of the same age would if similarly suspended.
- During subsequent suspensions or removals of up to 10 school days that in the aggregate total more than 10 school days in a school year but do not constitute a disciplinary change in placement, the district will provide students with disabilities services necessary to enable them to continue to participate in the general education curriculum and to progress toward meeting the goals set out in their respective individualized education program. School personnel, in consultation with at least one of the student’s teachers, will determine the extent to which services are needed to comply with this requirement.
In addition, during such periods of suspension or removal the district will also provide students with disabilities services necessary for them to receive, as appropriate, a functional behavioral assessment, and behavioral intervention services and modifications designed to address the behavior violation so that it does not recur.
- During suspensions or removals in excess of 10 school days in a school year that constitute a disciplinary change in placement, including placement in an IAES for behavior involving weapons, illegal drugs or controlled substances, or the infliction of serious bodily injury, the district will provide students with disabilities services necessary to enable them to continue to participate in the general curriculum, to progress toward meeting the goals set out in their respective individualized education program, and to receive, as appropriate, a functional behavioral assessment, and behavioral intervention services and modifications designed to address the behavior violation so it does not recur.
In such an instance, the committee on special education will determine the appropriate services to be provided.
Students Presumed to Have a Disability for Discipline Purposes
The parent of a student who is facing disciplinary action but who was not identified as a student with a disability at the time of misconduct has the right to invoke any of the protections set forth in this policy in accordance with applicable law and regulations, if the district is deemed to have had knowledge that the student was a student with a disability before the behavior precipitating disciplinary action occurred and the student is therefore a student presumed to have a disability for discipline purposes.
If it is claimed that the district had such knowledge, it will be the responsibility of the Superintendent, Building Principal or other authorized school official imposing the suspension or removal in question for determining whether the student is a student presumed to have a disability for discipline purposes. The district will be deemed to have had such knowledge if:
- The student’s parent expressed concern in writing to supervisory or administrative personnel, or to a teacher of the student that the student is in need of special education. Such expression may be oral if the parent does not know how to write or has a disability that prevents a written statement; or
- The student’s parent has requested an evaluation of the student; or
- A teacher of the student or other school personnel has expressed specific concerns about a pattern of behavior demonstrated by the student, directly to the district’s director of special education or other supervisory personnel.
Nonetheless, a student will not be considered a student presumed to have a disability for discipline purposes if notwithstanding the district’s receipt of information supporting a claim that it had knowledge the student has a disability,
- The student’s parent has not allowed an evaluation of the student; or
- The student’s parent has refused services; or
- The District conducted an evaluation of the student and determined that the student is not a student with a disability.
If there is no basis for knowledge that the student is a student with a disability prior to taking disciplinary measures against the student, the student may be subjected to the same disciplinary measures as any other non-disabled student who engaged in comparable behaviors. However, if the district receives a request for an individual evaluation while the student is subjected to a disciplinary removal, the district will conduct an expedited evaluation of the student in accordance with applicable law and regulations. Until the expedited evaluation is completed, the student shall remain in the educational placement determined by the district which can include suspension.
Expedited Due Process Hearings
The district will arrange for an expedited due process hearing upon receipt of or filing of a due process complaint notice for such a hearing by:
- The district to obtain an order of an impartial hearing officer placing a student with a disability in an IAES where school personnel maintain that it is dangerous for the student to be in his or her current educational placement;
- The district during the pendency of due process hearings where school personnel maintain that it is dangerous for the student to be in his or her current educational placement during such proceedings;
- The student’s parent regarding a determination that the student’s behavior was not a manifestation of the student’s disability; or
- The student’s parent relating to any decision regarding placement, including but not limited to any decision to place the student in an IAES.
The district will arrange for, and an impartial hearing officer will conduct, an expedited due process hearing in accordance with the procedures established in Commissioner’s regulations. Those procedures include but are not limited to convening a resolution meeting, and initiating and completing the hearing within the timelines specified in those regulations.
When an expedited due process hearing has been requested because of a disciplinary change in placement, a manifestation determination, or because the district believes that maintaining the student in the current placement is likely to result in injury to the student or others, the student will remain in the IAES pending the decision of the impartial hearing officer or until the expiration of the period of removal, whichever occurs first unless the student’s parent and the district agree otherwise.
Referral to Law Enforcement and Judicial Authorities
Consistent with its authority under applicable law and regulations, the district will report a crime committed by a student with a disability to appropriate law enforcement and judicial authorities. In such an instance, The Superintendent will ensure that copies of the special education and disciplinary records of the student are transmitted for consideration to the appropriate authorities to whom the crime is reported, to the extent that the transmission is permitted by the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA).